Staphylococcal enterotoxin C injection is established as a clinical therapy for delayed healing or disunion of bone fractures. In the present study, the effects of staphylococcal enterotoxin C injection in combination with ascorbic acid (SEC-AA) on the differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their influences on the mineralization of osteoblasts were investigated. SEC-AA treatment induced increased levels of alkaline phosphatase activity in MSCs and increased numbers of alizarin red-stained calcified nodules, indicating enhanced differentiation of MSCs into osteoblasts. The findings demonstrated that SEC-AA promoted the differentiation of MSCs into osteoblasts and accelerated the cytopoiesis of osteoblasts. Our data provide a cytological model for bone fracture therapy aimed at shortening the time required for healing and improving the clinical outcome, and also provide a theoretical basis for inducible differentiation of MSCs, mineralization of osteoblasts and reconstruction of bone tissues.